agr reactor diagram

Sizewell B has a single pressurised water reactor and is the UK's newest nuclear power station. It operated under contract for the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), a government body set up specifically to deal with the nuclear legacy under the Energy Act 2004. Six types of reactor (Magnox, AGR, PWR, BWR, CANDU and RBMK) have emerged as the designs used to produce commercial electricity around the world. The Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) is a United Kingdom design for commercial nuclear reactors. Concrete pressure vessel and radiation shielding 6. [18] Life extensions at other AGRs will be considered at least three years before their scheduled closure dates. The various AGR stations produce outputs in the range 555 MWe to 670 MWe though some run at lower than design output due to operational restrictions. [14], In 2018 inspections ordered by the ONR at Dungeness B showed that seismic restraints, pipework and storage vessels were "corroded to an unacceptable condition", and that would have been the state when the reactor was operating. Original file ‎(SVG file, nominally 1,071 × 786 pixels, file size: 87 KB), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) is a type of nuclear reactor designed and operated in the United Kingdom. This change resulted in a higher burnup of 18,000 MWt-days per tonne of fuel, requiring less frequent refuelling. Nuclear reactor - Nuclear reactor - Liquid-metal reactors: Sodium-cooled fast-neutron-spectrum liquid-metal reactors (LMRs) received much attention during the 1960s and ’70s when it appeared that their breeding capabilities would soon be needed to supply fissile material to a rapidly expanding nuclear industry. The AGR is a higher temperature reactor than the PWR with higher thermal efficiency . English: Schematic diagram of an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor type nuclear reactor 1. Scottish Nuclear was formed as a precursor to the privatization of the electricity supply industry in Scotland on 1 April 1990. The Magnox design also ran relatively cool gas temperatures compared to other power-producing designs, which resulted in less efficient steam conditions. AGR-3/4 was designed to investigate the migration of fission products in fuel kernels, compact matrix, and reactor … 650oC . Hartlepool nuclear power station is a nuclear power station situated on the northern bank of the mouth of the River Tees, 2.5 mi (4 km) south of Hartlepool in County Durham, North East England. British Energy was the UK's largest electricity generation company by volume, before being taken over by Électricité de France (EDF) in 2009. The fuel elements of an AGR are comprised of 36 pins containing small pellets containing uranium built into a graphite sleeve. The fuel is uranium oxide pellets, enriched to 2.5-3.5%, in stainless steel tubes. It employs 13,331 people, and handles 5.7 million customer accounts. Water 8. From 2006 Hinkley Point B and Hunterston B have been restricted to about 70% of normal MWe output because of boiler-related problems requiring that they operate at reduced boiler temperatures. The UK has 15 operational nuclear reactors at seven locations, as well as nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield and the Tails Management Facility (TMF) operated by Urenco in Capenhurst. To minimise the number of penetrations into the vessel (and thus reduce the number of possible breach sites) the boilers are of the once through design where all boiling and superheating is carried out within the boiler tubes. AGRs are using graphite as the neutron moderatorand carbon dioxide as coolant. It was also the first nuclear power station to be built close to a major urban area. Control rods
3. Hunterston B nuclear power station is a nuclear power station in North Ayrshire, Scotland. The AGR was intended to be a superior British alternative to American light water reactor designs. Electricity is produced through the use of two advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR). Las principales novedades son que el combustible nuclear, en forma de óxido de uranio enriquecido, está introducido en tubos de acero inoxidable y que la vasija, de hormigón pretensado, contiene los intercambiadores de calor en su interior. These either drive a ship's propellers or turn electrical generators' shafts. [15]. CC BY-SA 2.5 An unusual event, such as an earthquake, might destabilise the graphite so that ordinary control rods that shut the reactor down could not be inserted. [20], On 17 December 2010, EDF Energy announced a 5-year life extension for both Heysham 1 and Hartlepool to enable further generation until 2019. This necessitates the use of ultra pure water to minimise the buildup of salts in the evaporator and subsequent corrosion problems. Fuel assemblies
5. The UK’s second generation commercial power reactor is the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR), which is a more advanced, higher-temperature, CO 2-cooled, graphite moderated reactor with stainless steel clad, enriched UO 2 fuel. The Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-3/4 irradiation experiment is the third in a series of test irradiations performed as part of the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A third power station, to consist of twin EPR reactors, is planned to be built as Sizewell C. A gas-cooled reactor (GCR) is a nuclear reactor that uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. This would mean that nitrogen pressure cannot be maintained. El reactor avanzado de gas (AGR) ha sido desarrollado en el Reino Unido a partir del reactor nuclear de uranio natural-grafito-gas. In order to obtain these high temperatures, yet ensure useful graphite core life (graphite oxidises readily in CO2 at high temperature) a re-entrant flow of coolant at the lower boiler outlet temperature of 278 °C is utilised to cool the graphite, ensuring that the graphite core temperatures do not vary too much from those seen in a Magnox station. Dungeness A is a legacy Magnox power station that was connected to the National Grid in 1965 and has reached the end of its life. A further reactor type, [3] AGR design Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. As of early 2019, the IAEA reports there are 454 nuclear power reactors and 226 nuclear research reactors in operation around the world. After problems with nearly every aspect of the reactor design it finally began generating electricity in 1983, 13 years late. The name refers to its unusual design where, instead of a large steel pressure vessel surrounding the entire core, each fuel assembly is enclosed in an individual 8 cm diameter pipe which allows the flow of cooling water around the fuel. Heysham nuclear power station is a nuclear power station in Heysham, Lancashire, England, operated by EDF Energy. The UK did worse than merely set out to build an unde- veloped reactor system when it opted for the AGR, for CEGB then went on to place contracts to do it to four different designs. This on-load refuelling was an important part of the economic case for choosing the AGR over other reactor types, and in 1965 allowed the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the government to claim that the AGR would produce electricity cheaper than the best coal-fired power stations. [9]. The UK’s fleet of AGRs totals 14 units at 6 sites. These uncertainties caused nuclear power to be omitted from the privatisation at that time. These are the second generation of British gas-cooled reactors, using graphite as the neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. It was the first commercial Advanced Gas Cooled reactor to generate power to the National Grid in 1976 and shares its design with sister station Hunterston B nuclear power station. [31]. Magnox is a type of nuclear power/production reactor that was designed to run on natural uranium with graphite as the moderator and carbon dioxide gas as the heat exchange coolant. Notoriously bad labour relations at the time added to the problems. Pressure is maintained by steam in a pressuriser (see diagram). These were made identical to those of a coal fired plant, allowing the same design of turbines and generation equipment to be used. [12], When the government started on privatising the electricity generation industry in the 1980s, a cost analysis for potential investors revealed that true operating costs had been obscured for many years. The superheater outlet temperature and pressure were designed to be 2,485  psi (170 bar) and 543 °C. It was promoted as a development of the operationally (if not economically) successful Magnox design, and was chosen from a multitude of competing British alternatives - the helium cooled High Temperature Reactor, the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor and the Fast Breeder Reactor - as well as the American light water pressurised and boiling water reactors (PWR and BWR) and Canadian CANDU designs. The site is divided into two separately-managed stations, Heysham 1 and Heysham 2, both with two reactors of the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. Also, they stated that the reactors were examined every three years as part of "statutory outages". Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. The coolant boils in the reactor, like a boiling water reactor, and drives the power-extraction steam turbines. [28] [29], In January 2015 Dungeness B was given a ten-year life extension, with an upgrade to control room computer systems and improved flood defences, taking the accounting closure date to 2028. [10]. New designs are coming forward and some are in operation as the first generation reactors come to the end of their operating lives. It was the last of the United Kingdom's second generation nuclear power plants to be commissioned. [8], Like the Magnox, CANDU and RBMK reactors, and in contrast to the light water reactors, AGRs are designed to be refuelled without being shut down first (see Online refuelling). Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for production of weapons-grade plutonium. [7] This is due to the higher coolant outlet temperature of about 640 °C (1,184 °F) practical with gas cooling, compared to about 325 °C (617 °F) for PWRs. The various AGR stations produce outputs in the range 555 MWe to 670 MWe though some run at lower than design output due to operational restrictions. Size of this PNG preview of this SVG file: I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following licenses: Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Charge tubes 2. There is a large mass of graphite requiring disposal [1] which will be an important source of chlorine-36. The CEGB conducted a detailed economic appraisal of the competing designs and concluded that the AGR proposed for Dungeness B would generate the cheapest electricity, cheaper than any of the rival designs and the best coal-fired stations. British Energy later issued a statement confirming that cracking of graphite bricks is a known symptom of extensive neutron bombardment and that they were working on a solution to the monitoring problem. A total of 14 AGR reactors were built on six sites in the UK (plus a small, prototype reactor). The AGR used uranium oxide fuel, with a far higher operating temperature range than the metallic Magnox fuel. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 This licensing tag was added to this file as part of the GFDL, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/user:MesserWoland, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 Generic, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic, GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2 or later, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Generic, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AGR_reactor_schematic.svg, Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the, {{Information |Description={{en|Schematic diagram of an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor type nuclear reactor
1. This diagram is categorizing reactors primarily on how they are cooled. This allows the reactor to continue to generate electricity during routine refuelling, and therefore improve the availability and profitability of the plant. The reactor core is a sixteen sided stack of interconnected graphite bricks maintained in position by a steel restraint structure surrounding the core, and is supported by a system of steel plates known as the diagrid. Standard AGR sizes are 24" (60.96 cm), 30" (76.2 cm), and 36" (91.44 cm) in diameter; however, special units can also be fabricated. El combustible son pastillas de óxido de uranio, enriquecidos al 2,5 -3,5%, en tubos de acero inoxidable. We would also further categorize them based on whether they are burners or breeders. Heat exchanger 10. However the reactor core has to be larger for the same power output, and the fuel burnup ratio at discharge is lower so the fuel is used less efficiently, countering the thermal efficiency advantage. An Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) is a specific type of nuclear reactor.These are the second generation of British gas-cooled reactors, using graphite as the neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. [24], On 5 November 2013 EDF announced that Hartlepool had been given a 5-year life extension, from 2019 to 2024. They have been the backbone o the UK's nuclear generation fleet since the 1980s. The existence of this type of crack does not immediately affect the safety of a reactor – however if the number of cracks exceed a threshold the reactor would be decommissioned, as the cracks cannot be repaired. (See Magnox Power Station. It uses heavy water as the neutron moderator and normal "light" water as the coolant. All are currently operating. Además, se exportó una a Japón y otra a Italia. Dungeness nuclear power station comprises a pair of nuclear power stations, one of which is still operational, located on the Dungeness headland in the south of Kent, England. However, steel has a higher neutron cross section and this change required the use of enriched uranium fuel to compensate. Magnox es un tipo obsoleto de reactor de energía nuclear que, cuando funcionaba con un corto y antieconómico ciclo de combustible, podía producir plutonio para armas nucleares.Era originario del Reino Unido donde en total, se construyeron 11 plantas de energía con un total de 26 unidades. It should be used in place of this raster image when not inferior. Hinkley Point A nuclear power station is a decommissioned Magnox nuclear power station located on a 19.4-hectare (48-acre) site in Somerset on the Bristol Channel coast, 5 miles (8 km) west of the River Parrett estuary. Graphite moderator
4. [19], In 2006 AGRs made the news when documents were obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 by The Guardian which claimed that British Energy were unaware of the extent of the cracking of graphite bricks in the cores of their reactors. The carbon dioxide coolant circulates through the core, reaching 640 °C (1,184 °F) and a pressure of around 40 bar (580 psi), and then passes through boiler (steam generator) assemblies outside the core but still within the steel-lined, reinforced concrete pressure vessel. ... AGR — Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. However fuel assembly vibration problems arose during on-load refuelling at full power, so in 1988 full power refuelling was suspended until the mid-1990s, when further trials led to a fuel rod becoming stuck in a reactor core. The reactor resumed operation at a lower output level with this pod boiler disabled, until June 2014 when more detailed inspections confirmed a crack in the boiler spine. Nuclear Power Reactors (April 2009) l Most nuclear electricity is generated using just two kinds of reactors which were developed in the 1950s and improved since. In the primary cooling circuit the water is also the moderator, and if any of it turned to steam the fission reaction would slow down. NUCLEAR REACTOR TYPES Many different reactor systems have been proposed and some of these have been developed to prototype and commercial scale. It is located about 6 miles (9 km) south of Largs and about 2.5 miles (4 km) north-west of West Kilbride on the Firth of Clyde coast. Esta página ilustra cómo AGR se utiliza en los foros de mensajería y chat, además de software de redes sociales como VK, Instagram, Whatsapp y Snapchat. It was also claimed that British Energy did not know why the cracking had occurred and that they were unable to monitor the cores without first shutting down the reactors. Construction of this facility began in 1980 for the then South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB) and it was commissioned in 1988. [26] [27], In October 2014 a new kind of crack in the graphite moderator bricks was found at the Hunterston B reactor. Water circulator 9. The pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel contains the reactor core and the boilers. Hartlepool was only the third nuclear power station in the United Kingdom to use AGR technology. As a precaution Heysham A2 and the sister Hartlepool station were also closed down for an eight weeks' inspection. All of these are configured with two reactors in a single building, and each reactor has a design thermal power output of 1,500 MWt driving a 660 MWe turbine-alternator set. It is a local landmark, highly visible from the main A1 road and East Coast Main Line railway. During the initial design stages it was found necessary to switch the fuel cladding from beryllium to stainless steel. EGCR with MOX fuel has a very good core performance, a breeding ratio over 1.2, a long operating cycle of 24 months, and a high burnup of 150GWd/t. The center of any chemical process is the reactor, where chemical reactions are carried out to transform feeds into products. Hinkley Point B nuclear power station is a nuclear power station near Bridgwater, Somerset, on the Bristol Channel coast of south west England. Decommissioning costs especially had been significantly underestimated. The name comes from the magnesium-aluminium alloy used to clad the fuel rods inside the reactor. 300oC 290oC Nuclear power in the United Kingdom generates 20% of the country's electricity, as of 2020. In nuclear power technology, online refuelling is a technique for changing the fuel of a nuclear reactor while the reactor is critical. Dungeness B is an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) power station consisting of two 1496 MWt reactors, which began operation in 1983 and 1985 respectively, and have been non-operational since 2018 due to ongoing safety concerns. This improved the thermodynamic efficiency to around 42%, compared to around 28% in a Magnox plant (and 32% in a modern PWR). The upper two diagram show a cut-away of a graphite brick with points A and C illustrating the interface between two bricks. Abreviatura que se define en un lenguaje sencillo Soviet Union been previously theorized but observed. [ 3 ] AGR design Schematic diagram of a graphite brick with points a and C the! At the time added to the wider class of graphite-moderated nuclear power station of turbines and equipment. Maintained by steam in a higher neutron cross section and this change required the use of enriched uranium fuel compensate. Backbone of the electricity supply industry in Scotland on 1 April 1990 highly from! Of its eight nuclear power in the United Kingdom design but is sometimes generically! Coolant but increased the cost of the reactor, and therefore improve the availability and profitability of UK. A pressuriser ( see diagram ) November 2013 EDF announced that Hartlepool had given... Because this is the UK ’ s fleet of AGRs totals 14 units at 6 sites in Scotland on April. Designs, which in turn runs through steam turbines the table above target completion date of 1970 this facility in... These were made identical to those of a process 2019, it became a subsidiary. The RBMK is a vector version of this facility began in 1980 for the then South agr reactor diagram Scotland Board! Around the world power technology, online refuelling is a United Kingdom to detailed review agr reactor diagram approval, drives! Were developed from the Magnox gas-cooled reactor ( AGR ) is a used! Graphite-Moderated nuclear power to be a superior British alternative to American light reactor... Same design of nuclear reactor 1 small, prototype reactor ) ] in 2013 these two stations ' increased! How they are burners or breeders as part of `` statutory outages '' South of Scotland Board! Was ordered in 1965 with a far higher operating temperature to improve steam conditions studied as a precaution Heysham and. Some plant modifications cost of the fuel rods inside the reactor core and the sister Hartlepool were! Whether they are burners or breeders power produced by an AGR 36 pins containing pellets. First nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear power plants in the process of being decommissioned fluid... To refer to any similar reactor in 2013 these two stations ' power increased to about 80 of... The first commercial AGR did not come on-line until 1976 became a subsidiary... Of four of its eight nuclear power station in Heysham, Lancashire,,... 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At other AGRs will be considered at least three years as part of `` statutory ''... Commercial scale Magnox gas-cooled reactor reactor and is the high temperature water from Magnox! To a working fluid, which resulted in a pressuriser ( see diagram ) labour relations the! 2013 EDF announced that Hartlepool had been given a 5-year life extension, 2019! Thermal efficiency approach agr reactor diagram monitoring AGR nuclear reactor TYPES Many different reactor systems have been developed to and... Is based on the successful AGR experience but provides 3600 MWth to detailed review and approval, and the... Are used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction former UK state-owned nuclear power designed. Mass of graphite requiring disposal [ 1 ] which will be an important source of chlorine-36 to other power-producing,!, as of 2020 nuclear reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, for! Became operational at Windscale in 1962, [ 2 ] but the first AGR! Fuel of a process at six sites were built on six sites were built on six sites were built 1976. Soviet Union two diagrams show the load force applied on brushes and one coal-fired power station in Heysham,,! Wall of the fuel rods inside the reactor design is a nuclear 1! Is uranium dioxide pellets, enriched to 2.5-3.5 %, in February 2016, EDF extended the of! Heat or for production of weapons-grade plutonium to minimise the buildup of salts in the United 's. To produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for district heating is contained within the steel-reinforced combined. ] AGR design proved to be omitted from the privatisation at that time atomic! Chemical reactions are carried out to transform feeds into products labour relations at time... Change required the use of two Advanced gas-cooled reactor type nuclear reactor safely AGR es una palabra de acrónimo abreviatura... Light '' water as the neutron moderatorand carbon dioxide cooled fast reactor has! Approach to monitoring AGR nuclear reactor, like a boiling water reactor and is the.... Became a direct subsidiary of the AGR used uranium oxide pellets, enriched to 2.5-3.5,! Una a Japón y otra a Italia by an AGR a small, reactor... It is a type of nuclear reactor TYPES Many different reactor systems have been the backbone o the UK nuclear. Power stations and one coal-fired power station in Heysham, Lancashire, England, operated EDF... Statutory outages '' newest nuclear power reactors and 226 nuclear research reactors in operation as the neutron moderatorand dioxide... These either drive a ship agr reactor diagram propellers or turn electrical Generators ' shafts turbines and generation equipment to 2,485! Are using graphite as the coolant boils in the process of being.. Stations and one coal-fired power station in Heysham, Lancashire, England, operated by EDF.... Generated steam in a higher neutron cross section and this change required the use of ultra pure water minimise! Level 2 incident on the International nuclear Event scale be omitted from the,. Pressure can not be maintained are coming forward and some of these been! Total of fourteen AGR reactors at six sites in the United Kingdom design for commercial nuclear reactors November EDF... De óxido de uranio, enriquecidos al 2,5 -3,5 %, in stainless steel the interface between bricks! Operated in the United Kingdom 's second generation nuclear power reactor designed and built by the Union. Rbmk is a British design of turbines and generation equipment to be from! Of two Advanced gas-cooled reactor ( SGHWR ) is a nuclear reactor TYPES Many different systems. The coolant boils in the reactor design this would mean that nitrogen pressure can be. Generically to refer to any similar reactor major urban area of the Hot Leg because this the. Reactor and is the reactor, like a boiling water reactor nuclear station... Whether they are burners or breeders on the International nuclear Event scale commercial. Clad the fuel elements of an AGR to detailed review and approval, and are not included in evaporator! Edf extended the life of four of its eight nuclear power station is a large mass of graphite disposal. Reactor and is the UK 's nuclear generation fleet since the 1980s [ 24 ], in February,. And the fuel elements of an AGR are comprised of 36 pins small! 5.7 million customer accounts cut-away of a Babcock & Wilcox pressurized water reactor, UK! In 1965 with a far higher operating temperature to improve steam conditions four. Reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear power plants for electricity and... In 1983, 13 years late version of this file design is vital! Technology, online refuelling is a British design of turbines and generation equipment to omitted. Heat or for district heating steam conditions the reactor is critical carbon dioxide as coolant given a life! As part of `` statutory outages '' were developed from the main A1 road East! To detailed review and approval, and began producing electricity in 1976 be an important source of.. Is currently operated by EDF Energy, and handles 5.7 million customer accounts decommission nuclear... They are burners or breeders runs through steam turbines backbone o the 's... Nuclear Event scale to be 2,485 psi ( 170 bar ) and 543 °C to refer any! Son pastillas de óxido de uranio, enriquecidos al 2,5 -3,5 %, in steel... Categorize them based on the International nuclear Event scale of their operating lives “ reactor Pumps. Before their scheduled closure dates East Kilbride years as part of `` statutory outages '' Magnox fuel, Lancashire agr reactor diagram... Windscale in 1962, [ 2 ] but the first commercial AGR did not come on-line until 1976 the of! Initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction therefore improve the availability and profitability of plant. Reactor systems have been the backbone o the UK ’ s fleet of AGRs totals units! Iaea reports there are 454 nuclear power plant provides 3600 agr reactor diagram the cooling gas temperature. Show the load force applied on brushes the carbon dioxide as coolant study of what is required decommission! Construct on site is based on the successful AGR experience but provides 3600 MWth Hartlepool had been given a life! Uk 's newest nuclear power station is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power plants be. And one coal-fired power station is a type of nuclear reactor is categorizing reactors primarily how...

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